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Technical standards and specifications for connectors
点击率:621   作者:   来源:   时间:2017-10-16 13:55:53

 New specification for connection technology -- CompactPCI

Connector PICMG 2 based on CompactPCI specification and PCI can successfully connect the Express device, to meet the future needs of instrumentation, military and aviation market CompactPCI users, but also define the corresponding plate (3U, 6U) and backplane connector, electronic and mechanical standards. The system slots (boards) can accommodate up to 24 channels and 4 PCI Express connections, with the maximum system bandwidth of 6Gb/s in each direction. Peripheral slots can have up to 16 4Gb/s channels (1 type peripheral board) or 8 2Gb/s channels (2 type peripheral board).
More and more connectors are used in high speed and high end fields. In order to improve signal integrity, differential signal pairs must be used in connector technology. ERmet ZD and HM ERmet connectors not only meet the requirements of signal integrity for high speed applications, but also support the newly approved CompactPCI Express PICMG EXP.0 R1.0 PICMG specification.
PICMG EXP.0 transfers PCI Express signals through the ERmet ZD connector used for the ATCA standard called advanced differential structure (ADF). Connectors conforming to this standard require reliable high-speed signal transmission, high terminal density, and support other industrial standards as well as reliable supply of second resources. The 3 row signal pairs are in line with the new CompactPCI Express standard, and can provide 30 pairs of differential signals at the linear length of 25mm. In addition, due to the distance from the center of the plug-in board, the 3 row ZD connector can be inserted into the PMC module or XMC module on the 3U board. The ERmet ZD connector is also the standard connector for the existing PICMG 2.20 and PICMG 3 (ACTA) specifications.
From mechanical steering to electrical.
In the past, the selection of connectors was mainly due to mechanical engineers, because they need to consider the layout of the entire circuit board or subsystem, connector selection is more dimensional and space considerations. The electrical performance is usually considered the rated current of the terminal and the need to determine the size and shape of the number of terminals and a connector to the connector body of the transmission signal, the strong degree of design, especially in the military project. In avionics or portable systems, the size of each device is critical, and the selection of connectors is a big challenge.
Connector design today has been completely changed, required by the engineer to be responsible for the integration of signal selection, connector design new from must also meet the electrical performance requirements, rather than in the past, when the connector design is completed again to measure the electrical performance parameters. Especially the high speed signal above 10GHz, the electrical performance is very critical. When designing high performance connectors, whether expensive backplane connectors or common standard PC connectors, the first thing to consider is electrical performance requirements. The selection of connectors has also shifted from packaging engineer to electrical engineer of design circuit.
Improving data transmission speed
When the data transmission speed increases, the influence of capacitance and impedance is more obvious. A signal on a terminal will crosstalk to adjacent terminals and affect its signal integrity. In addition, the grounding capacitance reduces the impedance of the high speed signal and attenuates the signal. The new serial PCI standard PCI Express, at 2.5Gb, the maximum speed of data transmission in each direction is 500MB, greatly improving the speed of signal transmission of a single connector. In the past, high speed signals were usually controlled by coaxial cables and coaxial connectors to control the impedance of the signal path. In PCI Express, similar concepts are adopted, each of which is separated from each other.  Differential signal pairs can do very well for this purpose, because each differential signal has a grounding pin on one side to reduce crosstalk.
High speed transmission is most widely used in backplane connectors, and connectors up to 10Gb/s use very sophisticated design techniques. The first layer is usually open up area to separate adjacent ground terminal. The next layer is the grounding shield installed between the rows. The application of the top layer will include a metal grounding structure around each signal terminal. Such a C type metal shield achieves the best combination of data transmission speed and signal integrity, and is ideal for high speed application connectors.

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